Varnish for WordPress in a Docker container

Is your website experiencing heavy traffic? Are you looking for a solution that will reduce server load and will improve website speed? Varnish might just be what you need. Varnish listens for duplicate requests and provides a cached version of your website pages, mediating between your users’ requests and your server.

So how do you activate Varnish? In this article, I will show you how you can easily increase your website speed by using Varnish as a one click Docker container. I will demonstrate how using a website caching solution like Varnish can easily improve both page response times and the maximum number of concurrent visitors on your website. To simulate real traffic and measure correct response times, I have used an external server similar to, or to generate lots of traffic and concurrent users to our site.

What is Varnish and why should you use it?

Varnish Cache Plugin

Varnish HTTP Cache is a software that helps reduce the load on your server by caching the output of the request into the virtual memory. It is a so-called HTTP accelerator and is focused on HTTP only. Varnish is open source and is used by high traffic websites such as Wikipedia.

If you have lots of daily visitors, we recommend using a cache mechanism. You’ll see your response time improving significantly because the server can send the already cached data, directly from the memory, back to the client, without the resource consuming process handling on the web server. Additionally, it reduces the load on the CPU so that the server is able to handle many more requests without getting overloaded. I will demonstrate this in the stress tests later.

Running Varnish in a Docker container

Docker is a great open source project that makes it incredibly simple to add Varnish to a running server. We don’t need to install Varnish on the production server, we simply use a ready-to-go Varnish Docker image. The main advantage is that if something goes wrong with the container, we can simply remove it and spin-up a new container within seconds. The way in which Docker containers are designed guarantees that Varnish will always run independently of our system environment. Do you want to know more about Docker containers? Read more about the 6 essentials on Docker containers!

For this tutorial, I will use the newly integrated Docker support on Plesk to activate Varnish. The Plesk interface makes it easy to get a Varnish instance running, only requiring small modifications of the Varnish configuration file to be done using the terminal.

A further improvement would be to rebuild the Varnish Docker image so that it takes our configuration as a parameter from the Plesk UI. For now, I’ll stick to the original Docker image and upload our configuration via shell.

Activate Varnish in Plesk and test on a static page

Okay, let’s try it first on the default static page of Plesk. In the default settings, Plesk uses Nginx as a reverse proxy server for Apache. This means that Nginx is listening to default port 80(443 for HTTPS) and Apache to an internal port (7080 HTTP, 7081 HTTPS) We will push our Varnish container in between of the two web servers. In this scenario, Varnish will get the request from Nginx and the content from Apache. Don’t worry, it’s easier than it sounds!

Go to Docker and search for the image million12/varnish in the Docker Image Catalog. Once found, click “run” and Plesk will download the image to your local machine. After the download, click “run (local)”, which will open the configuration page of the container. The only thing that we’ll change is the port mapping.

Port mapping in Varnish

Varnish in Docker container on Plesk Onyx – Port mapping

Remove the tick at the option “Automatic port mapping” and set an external port (I will use port 32780 in this tutorial) for the option “Manual mapping”. This means that port 80 of the container is mapped to the external port 32780. By adding a proxy rule we can “talk” to the container through this external port. We will set the backend server in Varnish to the Apache port from where the data will be gathered if a “cache miss” occurred.

Test Varnish with a static page

Create a subdomain for testing our Varnish integration on a static page. After the subdomain was created, go to the “Hosting Settings” and deactivate the options “SSL/TLS support” and “Permanent SEO-safe 301 redirect from HTTP to HTTPS” because we want to test the Varnish functionality over HTTP first. Okay, but how do we redirect the requests to the Varnish container? This can be done easily with the option Docker Proxy Rules that you will find in the domain overview.

Proxy rules related to Varnish Cache

Varnish – Proxy rules for Docker container on Plesk Onyx

Click on “Add Rule” and select the previously created container and the port mapping that we entered manually. If you cannot make a selection, then your container is not running. In this case you should click on Docker in the menu and start the container first. If you open the subdomain after you’ve activated the proxy rule, you will see the error Error 503 Backend fetch failed. Don’t panic, this is an expected behavior. We did not configure the Varnish backend server yet!

Error 503 - Backend fetch failed

Varnish – Error 503 Backend fetch failed

Configure Varnish properly in the Docker container using SSH

This is the only time when we need to access the server and the Varnish Docker container via SSH. Open your terminal and type

Enter your password if required to get access to the server. Tip: use a private / public key pair to improve the security of your server!

First of all, we need to find out the ID of our Docker container. To list all active container type into the command line

Varnish HTTP Cache - Running Docker containers - Plesk Onyx

Varnish – Running Docker containers – Plesk Onyx

Copy the Docker ID and use the following command to access the Docker container

Okay, the most important thing to do is change the host and port value for the default backend server in the file. /etc/varnish/default.vcl

For .host we will enter the IP address of the server where Plesk is executed (in our example 111.222.333.444) and for .port 7080. As mentioned before, this is the default Apache HTTP port in Plesk. We have to use this port because, internally ,Varnish can only speak over an unencrypted channel!

Tip: Do we have a cache hit or miss?

How do we see that the content was loaded from the memory and not from the Apache server? You will see that the request was processed by Varnish through a special header entry in the response, you will not know whether the data was loaded from the memory or was requested from the Apache server.

To achieve it without having to use varnishlog in the console, we can set another header value with the corresponding value (cache hit / cache miss). We have to use the function sub vcl_deliver that is the last exit point for almost all code paths (except vcl_pipe). Add the following code within the curly brackets of the function sub vcl_deliver

Use the Developer Tools in your browser to examine the response

Save the modified file and exit the container. Switch to your Plesk UI again and restart the container in Docker with the “Restart” button. When you see the success message, go to the tab of the subdomain with the 503 error message. Do not reload the page yet but open the Developer Tools first (alt + cmd + i on a MacBook). Go to the “Network” tab and reload the page. Select the first entry (URL /) and take a closer look at the “Response headers”.

Cache Miss and Varnish

Varnish – Cache Miss

If everything was done properly, you will see some new header variables:

X-Cache – This is the variable that I’ve defined in the configuration file. After the first reload it should display a “MISS”.
X-Varnish: ID – The internal ID for this file in Varnish {more information required}
Via: "1.1 varnish-v4" – This shows that the request was redirected through the Varnish container.

Okay, it’s about time to see some Varnish magic! Click on the reload button in your browser to reload the page. This time it will be loaded from the virtual memory.

Varnish - Cache Hit

Varnish – Cache Hit

What about websites that are using HTTPS to encrypt the connection?

It also works and the best part of it is that you don’t have to change anything! Create an SSL certificate for the subdomain using the great Let’s encrypt extension. After the certificate was created and assigned (the extension does it automatically), go the the static page and reload it using https:// instead of http:// If you open your browser console, you will see a X-Cache: HIT in the response headers:

Activate Varnish caching on your WordPress website

We just saw that it’s technically possible to activate Varnish inside a Docker container with Plesk. Now let’s try it on a WordPress website!

The main difference is the configuration of the VLC configuration file within the Varnish container. WordPress is a dynamic CMS, thus we cannot cache everything without restricting the functionality of the system; the administration pages shouldn’t be cached since changes wouldn’t be possible any more for logged in users.

There are many pre-defined configuration files for WordPress available on the internet, from various developers. In most cases, you can use them right away without any modifications. For our test integration, we will take the configuration file created by HTPC Guides (with small adjustments – link below).

For this article and for the stress tests I’ve created a fully workable website with WordPress. I want to test under real conditions and not with a default WordPress installation. The website should also be secured with an SSL certificate and only callable over HTTPS. For this reason, I will also activate an SSL certificate with the help of the Let’s Encrypt extension for this installation.

Use a WordPress Plugin to activate support for HTTPS

Important: Do not use the option “Permanent SEO-safe 301 redirect from HTTP to HTTPS” within Plesk in “Hosting Settings” because this will lead to a redirect loop in our special environment constellation. Instead I will use a WordPress plugin to switch our installation completely to HTTPS. The name of the plugin is Really Simple SSL and can be downloaded from the official plugin repository.

Please make the same preparations like for the static page but add this time the additional required configuration data for WordPress to the default.vcl configuration file inside the Docker container. I’ve used the this Varnish configuration file (GitHub Gist) for my test installation. Don’t forget to adjust the backend server again like we already did for the static page!

Tip: Do not forget to restart the Docker container from the Plesk UI to reload the configuration information. If you forget to restart the container, then Varnish will not work properly with the WordPress website.

Now reload the front page of WordPress with the browser console open. The first loading process should throw an X-Cache: MISS but the second (and following) reloads will return an X-Cache: HIT.

Cache Hit with Varnish HTTP Cache plugin

Varnish in WordPress – Cache Hit

Let’s run some stress tests with!

We’ve seen that Varnish helps to improve the performance of the website. What is with the promised load reduction on the CPU? I can test it with the so-called stress testing which will load the website with many concurrent users per second for a certain time span. Without any security and overload protection, the server will start to respond steadily slower until the requests cannot be handled any more completely. With activated Varnish the server will be able to serve such intensive requests longer without throwing errors.

All right, it’s time to run load and performance tests with the external service provider

Note: I used a very small server for this test instance (only 1 CPU and 500MB Memory), so the positive impact of Varnish should be much higher on a more powerful server!

Result WITHOUT Varnish:

Wordpress without Varnish HTTP Cache

Stress test – WordPress without Varnish

As you can see, I had to abort the stress test because the server already couldn’t handle the request after less than 5 seconds and less than 50 concurrent users. After just 15 seconds the server collapsed completely and no requests could be managed any more!

Result WITH Varnish:

Varnish HTTP cache - WordPress with Varnish

Stress test – WordPress with Varnish

Varnish magic! As you can see, the Varnish cache allows us to keep the server stable even under heavy load. The small test server handled over 300 concurrent users and responded all requests over 30 seconds without any errors. After 30 seconds and over 300 concurrent users the server was overloaded and couldn’t accept further requests. With a more powerful server the numbers should be much higher! So, it’s also great to keep your website reactively if it suffers a DDoS attack, at least for a certain number of requests.

Summary: Varnish for WordPress within a Docker container on Plesk

Let me make a small checklist:

  • Varnish in Docker container? Yes.
  • Varnish in WordPress? Yes.
  • Varnish in Plesk? Yes.
  • Varnish for WordPress within Docker container in Plesk? Absolutely, yes!

Mission accomplished! 🙂

As you’ve seen, Varnish can greatly improve the performance of your WordPress website and reduce the CPU-load of your server. It’s relatively easy to setup a working environment using Varnish in a Docker container between Nginx and Apache within Plesk. The most important part is the correct configuration of Varnish for your specific CMS.

Thank you for reading. In the next blog post, I will take a look into another memory caching system, Memcached.

Stay tuned and stay Plesky!


Showing 41 comments
  • olu olateru

    My website uses W3Total Cache and Super Cache plugin, will this not affect Varnish.

    • AnyStack

      Why do you use 2 different cache plugins? It will not be too much to add varnish in front?

      • olu olateru

        No, I have five websites, 3 uses w3Total Cache and 3 uses Super cache.

        Please do you have guide on how to set up varnish on plesk for this plugin?

      • olu olateru

        Also, My website are using “FPM application served by Apache” and FASTCGI

        This is not mention in this article

  • Maximilian Grimm

    First Thanks for this nice Solution. But if i am using https:// it just says to many Redirects.

    • mascu

      Did you find a solution? I have the same problem with https.

  • Prokopis E Stamoulis

    the file /etc/varnish/default.vcl is NOT created on server (folder and file are missing)

    docker started ok, but i cant finf those files.
    is something wrong on what i understad on this guide?

    any help please?

  • olu olateru

    After following the instruction in the article carefully, i keep on getting an “MISS”

    • olu olateru

      Console Log

      bind(): Cannot assign requested address
      child (17) Started
      Child (17) said Child starts
      Manager got SIGINT
      Stopping Child
      Child (17) ended
      Child (17) said Child dies
      Child cleanup complete
      bind(): Cannot assign requested address
      child (16) Started
      Child (16) said Child starts
      Manager got SIGINT
      Stopping Child
      Child (16) ended
      Child (16) said Child dies
      Child cleanup complete
      bind(): Cannot assign requested address
      child (16) Started
      Child (16) said Child starts

  • Kingsley Felix

    anyone using it on cloudlinux 7.3 with a production wordpress site?

  • Kingsley Felix


    You did not mention how we are to add the varnish to docker, i have about 15 here from search

  • Kingsley Felix

    also is it possible to implement this server wide for PHP sites?

  • Kingsley Felix

    Is there no moderator? really disappointed

  • Kingsley Felix

    I am having the below error.

    Error: {“message”:”driver failed programming external connectivity on endpoint varnish (4bb8f14f3b3666a64871981347350a65b75dd38c1c482bf1a95229aaab3f7ad3): (iptables failed: iptables –wait -t filter -A DOCKER ! -i docker0 -o docker0 -p tcp -d –dport 80 -j ACCEPT: iptables: No chain/target/match by that name.n (exit status 1))”}

  • negurah


    I followed the configuration but i still have a MISS and bind(): Cannot assign requested address
    I checked and the port 7080 is well the port for plesk. Mod security is deactivated for this website.

    Thanks in advance

  • Kingsley Felix

    Error: {“message”:”driver failed programming external connectivity on endpoint varnish (b817da0ef5745a3423bb384c9db2a7438ab060d68a1dc8fd85f62398255afc7b): (iptables failed: iptables –wait -t filter -A DOCKER ! -i docker0 -o docker0 -p tcp -d –dport 80 -j ACCEPT: iptables: No chain/target/match by that name.n (exit status 1))”}

  • Kingsley Felix

    there is no /etc/varnish/default.vcl here

  • Jaap Veenstra

    Everything seems to work fine, except for the fact that I can’t seem to purge posts from wordpress. The connection from the domain to Varnish is refused.

    If i run: curl -x purge [domain], I get: Failed connect to purge:1080; Connection refused.

    Also some ‘purge plugins’ can’t seem to connect. I already tried to add: “” to the ACL list.

    • Kingsley Felix

      you have varnish in /etc directory?

      • Jaap Veenstra

        Yes. I do… I think it’s an ACL thing. But not sure.

        • Kingsley Felix

          i can’t find varnish in /etc/

          • Jaap Veenstra

            You need to open the container with the exec command.

          • Kingsley Felix

            how do i do that?

          • Kingsley Felix

            @jaap_veenstra:disqus how did you do it?

          • Jaap Veenstra

            Its all in the tutorial. Just follow the steps.

          • Kingsley Felix

            i just did but its not caching… showing red.

          • Jaap Veenstra

            I’m not An engineer. There are tons of variables. Take a look at your IP tables config. There was An error there?

        • Kingsley Felix

          NO /etc/varnish/default.vcl

          • Jaap Veenstra

            Is know. But there is an ACL rule in the default.vcl.

            I followed the complete guide. Varnish is working, except for purging.

  • Taty Jeferson

    Please, I can not install wordpress. Is giving the following error.
    Erro: O seguinte erro ocorreu durante o download do aplicativo: ODBC error #42S02: [MySQL][ODBC 5.1 Driver][mysqld-5.1.73]Table ‘apsc.aps_package’ doesn’t exist

  • jay

    works on non ssl and not working on ssl i get too many redirects..

  • Patrick Dankers

    I second what Jaap is saying, with some thinkering but closely following the instructions all kind of WordPress setups will work fine with this Varnish Docker setup. Purging on the other hand is something I am looking into aswell as whatever I do that does not seems to take.

    If there is suggestion on getting that working … please I am all ears 😉

  • Robin McDonald

    This article seems to not be complete as it is missing the detail of how to actually edit the file in the docker contatiner, as it contains no txt editor and you can’t seem to install one, so how do you actually change the port.

    • Niek Beernink

      Robin, the vi editor is available in the docker image. But you can also just install your own preferred image by running: yum install

      But my advise is to use volume mapping to map the file to a file outside your docker image so any changes you make to the file will not be lost if you re-recreate the image. Doing so will erase any changes made inside the image.

  • Mohammad

    Works on non ssl and not working on ssl i get too many redirects..
    How we can resolve this issue ?
    i’m using wordpress

  • KooTjoo

    Same issue here: Works on non ssl and not working on ssl i get too many redirects..

  • Florian

    Followed exactly multiple times, and getting the same issues:
    – HTTPS site visit looks strange via Varnish – while HTTP is okay.
    – HTTPS access to wp-admin gives “too many redirects” error, changing wp-admin to http works okay (but its a security issue).
    – I can not restart the docker container as soon as the redirect rule for the domain is in place and default.vcl is edited. Error:
    Could not create _.vsm.1: File exists
    Happens with centos-release-7-4.1708.el7.centos.x86_64 / Plesk 17.5.3 U#39

  • Yves

    Great post, helped me out alot!
    I had to open port 7080 in Plesk for Varnish to be able to contact my backend.

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